September 17, 2014

Conjunctions: Coordinating

A coordinating conjunction connect words, phrases or clauses that are of equal importance or have the same grammatical structure within a sentence

A coordinating conjunction may connect compound subjects.

  • Economists and policy-makers argue about how to ensure fair competition and continued innovation in the high-technology sector.
  • Oil or railways can offer insight into the differences between traditional companies and technology companies.

A coordinating conjunction may connect compound objects

  • The troubled company is not considering selling all or part of its business.

ALL and PART are objects of the verbal SELLING.

  • Some analysts say the odds are stacked against Netscape and any other rival that dares to challenge Microsoft.

NETSCAPE and RIVAL are objects of the preposition AGAINST.

A coordinating conjunction may connect compound phrases

  • Manufacturers must be free to develop their ideas and to package their products.

AND connects two infinitive phrases.

  • He reappeared a few minutes later looking embarrassed yet appearing otherwise unruffled.

YET connects two participial phrases.

  • The activists lodged frequent complaints against the barge industry and for its customers, including farmers.

AND connects two prepositional phrases.

A coordinating conjunction may connect independent clauses

  • Members of Congress are eager to bring home projects, andspecial interests are eager to reap the benefits.

AND connects two independent clauses.

  • Congress may be part of the problem, or it may be part of the solution.

OR connects two sets of subjects and verbs.

  • On balance, it has not been a liberal presidency, yet conservatives tend to underestimate the heat Clinton took within his own party on some of these issues.

YET connects IT HAS BEEN and CONSERVATIVES TEND.

  • The prince has abandoned his kingdom, for no army remains to do his fighting.

Six MOST COMMON coordinating conjunctions

  • For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet (FANBOY)

Two LESS COMMON coordinating conjunctions

WHILE

While is a coordinating conjunction when its meaning is during the time that or throughout the time that.

  • The owl paddled, while the monkey slept.

(The owl paddled during the time the monkey slept.)

While is a subordinating conjunction when its meaning is although or on the one hand.

  • While he was not poor, he had no ready cash.

(Although he was not poor, he had no ready cash.)

To avoid problems, use while for time and although or whereas to show subordination.

  • Will you buy a carton of milk while you are at the store?
  • Although you may disagree with the conclusion, please keep your opinions to yourself.

SO

So is a coordinating conjunction when its meaning is during the time NOT as a result.

  • The owl paddled, so the monkey slept.

So is a subordinating conjunction when its meaning is in order that, with the purpose that. (It is usually followed by that.)

  • The owl paddled, so that the monkey might sleep.

So is a conjunctive adverb when its meaning is therefore.

  • The owl paddled; so it made sense for the monkey to sleep.

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Comments

  1. I have some comments of SO as a subordinating conjunction and as a conjunctive adverb. I’d like to hear your comments:

    Subordinating conjunction:
    In the example–”The owl paddled, so that the monkey might sleep.”–where the dependent clause concludes the sentence, I understand the sentence would be written correctly WITHOUT A COMMA: “The owl paddled so that the monkey might sleep.” If, on the other hand, the dependent clause introduces the sentence, a comma is required: “So that the monkey might sleep, the owl paddled.”

    Conjunctive adverb:
    When SO is used as a conjunctive adverb, I would insert a comma after it: “The owl paddled; SO, it made sense for the monkey to sleep.” Is this not the standard rule?

    Thank you,

    David

  2. Anonymous says:

    Isn’t “the” a conjunction?

  3. no, it’s an article

  4. as soon as- is subordinating conjunction or coordinating conjunction?

  5. Subordinating!

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